Students‘ Essays

Writing an academic essay means creating ideas into an argument. The basic university student essay has following standardized structure:
paragraph 1 – introduction
paragraph 2 – body
paragraph 3 – conclusion


Credit issuing will take place on Tuesday, May 21, 2019 at 2:00 PM and on Thursday, May 30, 2019 at 10:00 AM in the Purkyne´s Institute Large Auditorium (Purkyňův ústav, velká posluchárna), Albertov 4, Prague 2.

To get credits you need to:
1) Reply questions under each lecture video on Youtube (as a comment).
2) Write thesis (essay at least 2 pages A4) and submit it on this webpage. How to upload essay to the system:

Open the website and click on the tab English –> Students‘ Essays.

At the end of the page (at the bottom) there is space for Comment („Napsat komentář“). Upload your seminar work there according to the instructions in the following picture.

1. Enter the text of your work into the „Comment/Komentář“ field.
2. Type your first name and last name into the „Name/Jméno“ field.
3. Send the seminar work by clicking on „Send Comment/Odeslat komentář“.
Leave the other two fields blank.
If the work is okay, your comment will be approved.

84 komentářů u „Students‘ Essays

  1. zorin evgeni

    Testing cosmetic products on animals
    Introduction:As a vegan for the last 5 years I have been educating my self about the animal exploitation in all fields of commercial production in our society. The damage that ignorance reinforced by crocked bioethics has showed a very sad picture to who ever is willing to ask the questions or see the horrifying pictures.
    First of all I would like to mention the definition of cosmetic products-The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) defines cosmetics as „articles intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body’s structure or functions.“ Examples include skin cream, perfume, lipstick, nail polish, eye and facial makeup, shampoo, and hair color. Any ingredient used in a cosmetic also falls under this definition. Products normally labeled as cosmetics are classified as drugs when a medical claim is made. For example, toothpaste is sometimes classified as a cosmetic, but toothpaste that advertises cavity protection is a drug.
    Body: The famous arguments that the necessity of these experiments on the behalf of the weakest members of our global population is unavoidable got a serious blow in the last few years affecting most of the world Thanks in large part to HSI’s #BeCrueltyFree campaign, the EU also banned the sale of cosmetic products or ingredients subject to new animal testing after March 2013. Israel imposed a testing and a sales ban in 2007 and 2013, respectively. And following a vibrant campaign by our #BeCrueltyFree India team, India also introduced a national test ban in 2013. Most recently our #BeCrueltyFree Brazil team congratulated the Brazilian state of Sao Paulo for introducing a complete cosmetics animal testing ban in January 2014, and #BeCrueltyFree New Zealand achieved a national cosmetics animal testing ban in 2015!
    However, cosmetics animal testing remains legal in the rest of the world. Although many countries don’t expressly require such testing, as it is not prohibited it continues to take place at the discretion of cosmetics companies and ingredient suppliers
    The scientific background consist of safety and hypoallergenic testing that is conducted on animals before it is tried on humans as well as the biohazard these products may cause in case of misuse.
    Studies published in medical journals have shown time and again that animal experimentation wastes lives—both animal and human—and precious resources.
    I believe that the biggest change in the legislation of cosmetics products by the governmental corresponding institutes as safe comes due to the advance in technology in this field, there are a scientific proofs that the old ways and methods that we put our trust are not relevant any more. As an example I want to comment about the notorious acute toxicity test (LD50): which began around world war I era. The test procedure described as-groups of animals are force-fed increasing amounts of a test substance or increasing amounts are applied to their skin until half of them die. At the end of a test the animals are killed, normally by asphyxiation, neck-breaking, or decapitation. Pain relief is not provided. In the United States, a large percentage of the animals used in such testing (such as laboratory-bred rats and mice) are not counted in official statistics and receive no protection under the Animal Welfare Act.
    Besides the fact that as we claim to be a modern and moral society, One international study that examined the results of rat and mouse LD50 tests for 50 chemicals found that these tests predicted toxicity in humans with only 65 percent accuracy––while a series of human cell-line tests was found to predict toxicity in humans with 75 to 80 percent accuracy.
    And what are this new methods that technology provides?
    These modern methods include sophisticated tests using human cells and tissues (also known as in vitro methods), advanced computer-modeling techniques (often referred to as in silico models), and studies with human volunteers. These and other non-animal methods are not hindered by species differences that make applying animal test results to humans difficult or impossible, and they usually take less time and money to complete. Instead of measuring how long it takes a chemical to burn the cornea of a rabbit’s eye, manufacturers can now drop that chemical onto cornea-like 3D tissue structures produced from human cells. Likewise, human skin cultures can be grown and purchased for skin irritation testing.
    There are estimate that approximately 100,000-200,000 animals suffer and die just for cosmetics every year around the world. These are rabbits, guinea pigs, hamsters, rats and mice. While dogs and monkeys are never used to test cosmetics anywhere in the world, they are used to test other types of chemicals.
    The next question to be asked is in what cases the cosmetic companies are asked or required to conduct experiments on animals for their products?
    In the majority of cases, animal tests continue because some companies insist on developing and using “new” ingredients. These are ingredients that don’t have existing safety data—because they’re new! So new safety data has to be generated to satisfy the regulators before a product can go on sale, and that means new animal testing.
    As a medical student with education in the field of science, my future job will be to address the personal issues, complaints and diseases HUMANS will address me with. I do see the big responsibility I have to understand the bigger picture which consist of more elements such as the social composition of the society I live in with its unavoidable complexities as well as the political forces that always play a major role in our modern capitalist society, these rules are regulations are there to protect us ‘the ones with privileges’ from the weaker members of society, as I wrote in this article about animals.
    Cosmetic products are an essential part of our life in these day and there is no reason to protest against it, beauty and health as the main wishful outcomes of cosmetics have been a part of modern culture for thousands of years. they were a major part in the trade of goods between different civilizations and there is a really solid reason for it. I still remember right after I was released from my obligatory army service in the Israeli army I tried my luck as a sales man in the united states of dead sea products, I must admit that my understanding of various products on the shelves was quite limited in the beginning but with very short time I became a pro and I could recommend each client the best product for him.

    In conclusion cosmetics are a big part of our society our culture and our industry, its not going away and its just getting bigger, but it shouldn’t compromise the existence of other species especially now that technology is offering so many alternatives which are provide more reliable information and cruelty free.

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