Students‘ Essays

Writing an academic essay means creating ideas into an argument. Though more advanced scientific papers are category all their own, the basic university student essay has following standardized structure:

paragraph 1 – introduction

paragraph 2 – body

paragraph 3 – conclusion


41 komentářů u „Students‘ Essays

  1. Sana Ahmad

    Lip Augmentation
    Lip augmentation is a cosmetic procedure which aims to give the patient fuller and plumper lips.There are many different methods for lip augmentation, depending on the patients aesthetic goals.
    1. Injection – fat transfer, autologous fat (fat from your own body e.g from thighs or abdomen) can be taken via liposuction injected into the patients lips. Injections may need to be repeated until the patient receives the desired result. There’s no risk of allergic reaction and patient could achieve permanent results
    2. Injection – Fillers. Fillers made from natural or synthetic biocompatible material acts as a fat substitute to plump up the lip. For example Restylane is a clear gel. It contains hyaluronic acid. It’s biodegradable, so your body will absorb it within about six months of the injection One treatment is usually sufficient to produce the desired result. The results, however, may be temporary as it biodegradable and patient may require repeat injections.
    3. Surgery – Dermal Graft. A permanent method of augmenting the lips is accomplished by surgically advancing the lip forward, with incisions placed inside the mouth. A dermal-fat graft, taken from the deeper layers of the skin, may then be positioned under the mucosa (the lining of the lip) to add additional plumpness.
    4. Surgery – Vermillion advancment. This procedure involves making an incision along the border of the coloured portion of the lips, removing a strip of skin outside the border and then pulling the coloured portion to increase the area of the lips.
    5. Surgery – Alloderm. Alloderm is a sheet of collagen created from deceased humans.The cosmetic surgeon inserts them through tiny incisions made on the inside part of the lip. This material offers only a temporary fix, lasting up to 12 months
    Although this is mostly a minimally invasive procedure, it does have its risks/ side effects such as,
    • Bleeding from the injection sites and swelling and bruising
    • Redness and tenderness at the site of the injection
    More serious side effects or risks may include:
    • Severe and prolonged swelling or bruising lasting one week to 10 days
    • Lip asymmetry (parts of lips are different sizes)
    • Lumps and irregularities in the lips
    • Infection
    • Allergic reaction causing redness, swelling, or itching around the lips
    The cost of this procedure again depends on the patients aesthetic goals. A syringe of Restylane costs about €500 – 750. Usually a patient will not use more then two syringes. Lip augmentation is one of the more “cheaper” forms of cosmetic surgery, and has become very popular over the last 10 years.
    There has been a 35% increase in the number of Lip augmentation procedures ( American society of Plastic Surgeons) carried out by cosmetic surgeons since 2000 till 2013. This is no surprise as we now live in a society in which image and physical experience play a significant role.

  2. Olav Hovland Sannes

    Facial wrinkles and their treatment
    Olav Hovland Sannes

    Wrinkles are folds in the skin appearing due to a variety of reasons, becoming especially conspicous in the facial region. Facial wrinkles are typically viewed as a sign of aging. In a sense, the appearance and arrangement of an individuals facial wrinkles acts as a road map of that persons life, revealing many details about them and their habits throughout their lifetime. Naturally, carrying this information in such a visible manner is not for everyone, especially with the social and cultural symbolisms associated with a wrinkly face.
    In this essay, I will explain the main reasons for the development of wrinkles in the facial region and discuss some common methods for their removal and reduction.

    Wrinkles are primarily result of gradual damaging of elastin and collagen fibers in the dermis of the skin. Collagen fibers support she skin and elastin fibers are responsible for its flexibility. These fibers are slowly becoming injured with the continous extension and compression of the skin due to facial expression and mechanical contact. With age, regeneration of skin happens slower and with higher alteration of length and tension of replicated fibers. The accumulation of these altered fibers occur in areas of regular folding. Eventually this results in the normal folding pattern to be more and more permanent, producing a wrinkle.
    Another consequence of againg affecting the skin skin is the decrease in its ability to retain moisture and it’s own naturally produced oils. These components also contribute against the formation of wrinkles.

    While it is not so easy to fight an individual’s aging and it’s effect on the skin, there are other parameters that affect wrinkle formation. The primary cause of premature wrinkle formation is exposure to the sun. When sun light hits the skin, UV radiation damages the collagen fibers and dries away moisture. This damage can be reduced by using sunscreens routinely.
    Another major contributor to wrinkle development is the use of tobbaco. Chemicals in tobacco damage elastin and collagen fibers, which reduces elasticisy and strength of skin. Nicotine in tobbaco based substances also lead to the constriction of vessels. Thus, the blood flow to dermis is reduced, together with the subsequent supply of oxygen and nutrients to the dermis and epidermis.
    Other factors that play into the appearance of wrinkles are nutrition and exercise. Omega 3 fats provide protective components against UV radiation and regular exercise will increase the blood flow to the layers of skin.

    In attempt to reduce and remove current wrinkles or prevent the formation of new ones, there are several treatments that are proven to work. A non-invasive method is the use of certain perscription creams, such as Renova and Retin-A. These creams contain a vitamin A derived carboxyclic acid called tretinonin, but its mode of function is not entirely clear.
    A more invasive method is the injection of the infamous neurotoxin botulinum toxin,more commonly known as Botox. This neurotoxin is injected into the patient’s facial muscles, and causes the inhibition of their motor receptors. This leads to hypokinesia in the injected mimic muscles, restricting their constriction and thus prohibiting the formation of wrinkles.
    Other invasive treatments exists that directly remove wrinkles. Examples of these methods are dermabrasion and chemical peel. Essentially, these treatments use mechanical and chemical means to peel off or wear away the outer layers of epidermis, which have the higest degree of wrinkle formation. The lower layers of skin that are revealed are more smooth.

    In conlcusion, the appearance of wrinkles is largely due to environmental damage over time. With old age, collagen and elastic fibers in the skin do not regenerate as quick or as well as they used to. Thus, the destructive effects on these fibers due to the use of mimic muscles and the exposure to UV radiation become more appearant, producing folds in the skin. This process can be both prolonged or advanced by activities and chemicals that either protect or degenerate collagen and elastic fibers. However, if the the problem has already occured, there are several treatments that can help, both chemical and mechanic, invasive and non-invasive.

Napsat komentář

Vaše emailová adresa nebude zveřejněna. Vyžadované informace jsou označeny *