Students‘ Essays

Writing an academic essay means creating ideas into an argument. Though more advanced scientific papers are category all their own, the basic university student essay has following standardized structure:

paragraph 1 – introduction

paragraph 2 – body

paragraph 3 – conclusion


41 komentářů u „Students‘ Essays

  1. Ayla Shahidi

    Laser Hair Removal
    Laser hair removal is one of today’s most common cosmetic procedures. It involves removing unwanted hair by repeatedly blasting the skin with intense laser pulses that destroy the hair follicles. It’s an effective, long term alternative to other hair removal methods such as electrolysis, shaving, or waxing. The primary principle behind laser hair removal is selective photothermolysis, which involves the matching of a specific wavelength of light and pulse duration to obtain an optimal effect on a targeted area of skin with minimal effect on the surrounding area. Successful hair removal has been defined as an 80% reduction of regrowing hairs 6 months after several treatments.
    Various types of lasers are utilized with laser hair removal depending on your skin type, hair thickness and color, the size and location of the area being treated, and the treatment timing: Ruby laser, Alexandrite laser, Diode laser, Nd:YAG laser or Intense pulsed light devices. Alexandrite and pulsed light devices should not be used on darker skin types or tanned patients. Diode lasers and Nd:YAG lasers may be used for these skin types.
    The mechanism behind laser hair removal works by targeting areas with specific chromophores such as melanin found in the hair. Hair grows in several phases and a laser can only affect the active growing hair follicles thus several sessions are required in order to kill the hair in all growth phases. The laser emits a wavelength of light that is primarily absorbed by the hair and reflected by the skin, causing the hair follicle to heat up faster than the surrounding skin. This causes inflammation, which will kill the follicle that produces the hair. There are two types of melanin in the hair; eumelanin which gives hair a brown or black color and pheomelanin which gives hair blonde or red color. Due to the selective absorption of photons of laser light, only black or brown hair can be removed. This is why laser works best with dark and coarse hair. The ideal combination for effective results are light skin and dark hair. The number of sessions depends on the area of the body being treated, coarseness of hair, skin color, and sex. Most patients need a minimum of seven treatments.
    Laser parameters are crucial to producing optimal results. The pulse duration is one of the most important considerations. The length of the heating pulse directly relates to the amount of damage achieved in the follicle. The main target when attempting to destroy hair follicles are the germ cells that reside on the surface of the hair shaft. An adequate temperature needs to be maintained for a certain duration in order for these cells to be successfully destroyed. The width of the laser beam is also a crucial component as it directly affects the depth of penetration of the light energy due to scattering effects in the dermal layer. Larger beam diameters cause a deeper deposition of energy and thus can induce higher temperatures in deeper follicles. Energy density is also important because because the settings have to be high enough to heat up the follicles enough to disable them from producing hair. Epidermal cooling allows for higher energy density to be used and it reduces pain and other side effects. Types of cooling include contact cooling through a window that’s cooled by circulating water, cryogen spray, and air cooling by forced air at -34 degrees Celsius.
    As with any cosmetological procedure, laser hair removal also has several side effects and risks. Normal side effects include itching, pink skin, redness, and swelling around the treatment area or swelling of the follicles. These side effects rarely last more than two or three days. Pain should be expected during treatments. Numbing creams used before and icing the area after treatment can help relieve the side effects faster. The two most common serious side effects are acne and skin discoloration. Diode handpieces with a large spot size which use vacuum-assisted suction have shown to reduce the level of pain associated with laser treatment. Risks include the possibility of burning the skin or discoloration, hypopigmentation, acne flare, scab formation, purpura, and infection. These risks can be reduced by treatment with an appropriate laser type used at appropriate settings for the individual’s skin type and treatment area.
    Before the procedure the patient should avoid sunbathing, tanning beds, waxing, chemical peels or collagen injections for two weeks prior to the procedure. They should also avoid perfumes, deodorants or any potential irritants in the treatment area before and after treatment. Aspirin, anti-inflammatory drugs and herbal supplements should also be avoided due to increased risk of bleeding.
    Laser hair removal is a convenient, noninvasive method for permanently reducing or removing unwanted facial or body hair compared to other methods such as waxing, plucking, shaving, and electrolysis.

  2. Mahla Movahed

    Plastic surgery
    Society today has brain washed not only today’s women, but also the men to believe that in order for a person to look beautiful they must look like the images seen on television, in movies and on the cover of magazines. These images portray grotesquely thin women and muscular men with the infamous six-pack abs. The Hollywood figures that are so famous for their looks and bodies also encourage the belief that thin is beautiful. These images are plastered all over billboards, television show and commercials and magazine advertisements. With all these visions of beauty seen everywhere in a person’s everyday life, a person feels compelled to look just like those images.
    Many cases have been reported of deaths as a result of cosmetic surgical procedures. Yet , many people are still drawn into the lure of looking beautiful. They don’t care about the price they have to pay, which could ultimately be their own life. People are only concerned with the fact of being beautiful. Most importantly, society accepts this desire; even producing television shows dedicated to the televising of plastic surgery procedures. The Learning Channel has recently produced a television series aptly titled „A Personal Story“ in which people voluntary appear on the show. They are followed by cameras a couple of days before the procedure and then appear again several days or even months later to let the world view the results of the surgery.
    However having cosmetic surgery before 18 also has some drawbacks. Firstly, it increases the risk of being affected by side effects from these surgeries. Because teenagers‘ bodies have not yet matured to their final shape, going under the knife for plastic surgery could cause some dangers. For instance, when going under cosmetic surgery, there is a chance that you could have a reaction against anesthesia used in the operations, which can be deadly. Furthermore, cosmetic surgery is likely to make patients get scars, which cannot be corrected. Secondly, allowing teenagers to go through plastic surgery may make them overestimate physical appearances over inner characteristics. Gradually, they may not treasure their personalities but try as hard as possible to enhance their looks.
    The biggest negative about plastic surgery is the fact that it is a surgical procedure. This means there are risks associated, including infection, blood loss, and nerve problems. Before pursuing a procedure, discuss all of these risks with your doctor, and make sure you are comfortable with those risks. You will have scars, pain, and time off of work for a cosmetic procedure, and this may not be something you are willing to endure for a procedure considered medically unnecessary.
    In conclusion not everyone is ready, emotionally or otherwise, for plastic surgery, and not everyone needs it. For some, it provides a major benefit, but for others, the negatives outweigh the positives. You must decide what is the most important for you.

    Mahla Movahed
    group 4151

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