Students‘ Essays

Writing an academic essay means creating ideas into an argument. The basic university student essay has following standardized structure:
paragraph 1 – introduction
paragraph 2 – body
paragraph 3 – conclusion


Credit issuing will take place on Tuesday, May 21, 2019 at 2:00 PM and on Thursday, May 30, 2019 at 10:00 AM in the Purkyne´s Institute Large Auditorium (Purkyňův ústav, velká posluchárna), Albertov 4, Prague 2.

To get credits you need to:
1) Reply questions under each lecture video on Youtube (as a comment).
2) Write thesis (essay at least 2 pages A4) and submit it on this webpage. How to upload essay to the system:

Open the website and click on the tab English –> Students‘ Essays.

At the end of the page (at the bottom) there is space for Comment („Napsat komentář“). Upload your seminar work there according to the instructions in the following picture.

1. Enter the text of your work into the „Comment/Komentář“ field.
2. Type your first name and last name into the „Name/Jméno“ field.
3. Send the seminar work by clicking on „Send Comment/Odeslat komentář“.
Leave the other two fields blank.
If the work is okay, your comment will be approved.

84 komentářů u „Students‘ Essays

  1. Constantin Hornig

    Historical aspect of plastic surgery

    Today it is a completely normal thing to consider an aesthetic or plastic intervention. You can change almost every part of your body and correct it in the way you want. Many people want to change their appearance, for others it can mean a significant change of quality in life, for example people with burns or injuries from a previous mechanical accident. If you take a look at all the different parts of plastic surgery nowadays, it is worth to consider, how it came to this wide range of surgical possibilities by taking a look at the history of this category of medicine. In the following essay I want to constitute, how plastic surgery was done in the ancient times and how it came to the practicing techniques from today.

    One of the first surgical interactions is dated on 2700 B.C., when Imhotep, a priest and famous architect, also named in Egypt as the “god of medicine”, made diagnosis for treating common fractures of the humerus and ribs. He also prescribed medical clay and wrote a textbook, which is called “Edwin smith papyrus” and deals with traumatic surgeries and gives around 48 case histories.

    Around 600 B.C. Sushruta, an ancient indian physician, published “Sushruta Samhita”, an ancient text on medicine and surgery. It is written, that he learned surgery from Lord Dhanvantari, the god of medicine in the Hindu mythology. Sushruta is said to be one of earliest fathers of surgery. He performed mainly the early cosmetic surgery, plastic surgery and rhinoplasty. He described in detail how a patient has to be examined, treated and what his prognosis will be. According to the old indian jurisdiction, the nose of felons, adulterers and prisoners of war were broken and ejected as punishment; then they cut of a piece of skin from their forehead and this piece of skin was added as replacement for the ejected nose.

    Also the romans performed cosmetic surgery, mainly repairing severed parts of the body. The romans were greatly restricted by religious and ethnic aspects; so they were not allowed to practice several surgical techniques on humans or animals, so they mainly had the knowledge of those techniques from their Greek predecessors.
    Until this time of the human and medical history, most surgeons were very restricted to perform cosmetic surgery, due to their less knowledge in anatomy and few opportunities to perform those surgeries. Additionally, in this time, the population was really poor and the inadequate knowledge was also given only to the nobility and priests.

    The time between the ancient world and the modern history, dated from approximately 800 B.C. to the 16th century was unspectacular concerning cosmetic surgery; but noteworthy is the Italian doctor Branca at around 1450, who rediscovered the already mentioned Indian method for rhinoplasty; but instead of cutting skin out of the forehead, he has cut it out of the forearm and inserted it onto the nose for nasal reconstruction. Another Italian surgeon, Gasparo Tagliacozzi, wrote in his well-known book “De Curtorum chirurgica per insitionem Libri duo” again about this method for nasal reconstruction, but he did it precisely by adding drawings as instruction. He also gave strict instructions for the procedure, e.g. in which angle to cut or how to hold the scalpel correctly.

    The next important timespan is especially due to the developing methods for anesthesia, because since then, the patient did suffer less during surgical interventions and was partly or even completely unconscious.
    In 1823, Jacques Deplech, a French doctor, described a nose and lip reconstruction. In 1838, Eduard Zeis published an article in a German newspaper, where he mentioned the term “plastic surgery” for the first time. Eduard Zeis, who lived in Dresden, published his textbook “Handbuch der plastischen Chirurgie”, which a few years later helped Dr. Dieffenbach for his textbook “Die operative Chirurgie”, which was an important work for spreading the knowledge of general surgery and plastic surgery (he was the first, who gave this branch of medicine an own chapter in his book). Main subject of the plastic surgery was mainly the reconstruction of lips and jaws (Cheilognathopalatoschisis) and lesions in the facial area.

    The early 19th century was predisposed by new knowledge in anatomy and surgery.
    So this was beneficial for plastic surgery as well: the new knowledge was used to perform skin transplantations and also breast augmentations on cancer patients. This was done by Vincenz Czerny, an Czech surgeon from Bohemia.

    In the First World War many soldiers, especially in Verdun, were harmed by gas attacks and other injuries caused by war, which gave the surgeons the opportunity, to test their possibilities and to improve their skills in order to help the injured solders. In 1931, the surgical book “Nasenplastik und sonstige Gesichtsplastiken nebst Mammaplastik” by Jacques Joseph, brought him the name “father of anesthetic surgery”.

    Especially after the 2nd world war, the microsurgery brought incredible possibilities for the surgeons. The American doctor Sterlin Bunnell discovered the modern plastic hand surgery, which benefited greatly from the modern microscopes and the new technology. In 1962 the first silicon implants by Thomas Cronin and Frank Gerow were milestones in terms of plastic surgery, just like the first transplantation of a toe to replace the thumb by the British doctor John Cobbett in 1968.

    Today, plastic surgery is a wide area with many subdivisions, as the Aesthetic surgery, the burn surgery, the craniofacial surgery, the hand surgery, the microsurgery and the pediatric plastic surgery. If there haven’t been all those different stages in the timespan of medical and human history, the medicine and its appendices, how we know them today, would surely look different.

    Most of the knowledge about plastic surgery and the thousands of different ways how to perform a surgical intervention, is due to a few specific men, who were in their time maybe the first one who did it and set the fundament for the surgery and cosmetology. Due to the wide range of medicine and the continuously adapted procedures underline the dynamic aspect of medicine. Hopefully the following generations in 200 or 300 years will as well appreciate, what our generation has done for medicine.

    Constantin Hornig

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