Students‘ Essays

Writing an academic essay means creating ideas into an argument. The basic university student essay has following standardized structure:
paragraph 1 – introduction
paragraph 2 – body
paragraph 3 – conclusion


Credit issuing will take place on Tuesday, May 21, 2019 at 2:00 PM and on Thursday, May 30, 2019 at 10:00 AM in the Purkyne´s Institute Large Auditorium (Purkyňův ústav, velká posluchárna), Albertov 4, Prague 2.

To get credits you need to:
1) Reply questions under each lecture video on Youtube (as a comment).
2) Write thesis (essay at least 2 pages A4) and submit it on this webpage. How to upload essay to the system:

Open the website and click on the tab English –> Students‘ Essays.

At the end of the page (at the bottom) there is space for Comment („Napsat komentář“). Upload your seminar work there according to the instructions in the following picture.

1. Enter the text of your work into the „Comment/Komentář“ field.
2. Type your first name and last name into the „Name/Jméno“ field.
3. Send the seminar work by clicking on „Send Comment/Odeslat komentář“.
Leave the other two fields blank.
If the work is okay, your comment will be approved.

84 komentářů u „Students‘ Essays

  1. Tyrone Lawrence

    Orthognathic surgery, also known as corrective jaw surgery, is used to correct facial dysmorphisms arising from skeletal and dental abnormalities of the face and jaw. Other than its aesthetic benefits, orthognthic surgery may serve many functional improvements such as chewing, speaking and breathing, which certainly enhances quality of life for patient.

    The surgery is done by a maxillofacial surgeon but requires close cooperation with a dentist, orthodontist and occasionally a prosthodontist. Due to the physical change in appearance for the patient, a psychological assessment may be required prior to surgery. Correction of these deformities require scrupulous analysis of the soft tissue with a thorough physical examination and supporting photographs, radiographs for skeletal evaluation and dental casts. Software may be used to predict the resultant effect of the surgery.

    The main goals of orthognathic surgery is to achieve a correct bite, an aesthetic face and improved airway structure. The surgery is done under general anaesthetic may involve one or both jaws depending on initial alignment. A nasal tube is used for intubation to allow the surgeon to wire the teeth together during surgery. The jaw modification is achieved by osteotomies of the mandible and the maxilla and subsequent repositioning of the cut pieces in the desired alignment. Most maxillofacial deformities can be corrected with 3 basic osteotomies: the mid face with the Le Fort I-type osteotomy, the lower face with the sagittal split ramal osteotomy of the mandible and the horizontal osteotomy of the symphysis of the chin. The jaws are then wired together (intermaxillary fixation) using stainless steel wires to ensure correct repositioning of the bones. In certain cases, the jaw surgery may cause the cheeks to become shallow which can be corrected using implants.

    After the surgery, the patients are kept on a liquid diet, with a slow progression to more solid foods. This diet is important to ensure a quick healing process and minimise complications. Normal recovery varies depending on complexity of the surgery and can be as little as a few weeks to a year. Pain, swelling, bruising and anaesthesia is common and pain medication and prophylactic antibiotics are administered. Frequent check ups and monitoring of the healing process is necessary for best results and further surgery may be indicated if the results are unfavourable.

    With surgery, complications such as bleeding, swelling, infection, nausea and vomiting are relatively common. Anaesthesia from nerve damage is a possibility but is rarely permenant. Orthognathic surgery involving the maxilla may affect shape of the patient’s nose, the effect of which may be minimised by careful planning and accurate execution of the surgical plan. Scarring of the paranasal maxillary sinuses is another complication of orthognathic surgery.

    The outcomes depend on the surgical procedure, on certain factors beginning long before the actual surgery and on control of variables long after the surgical procedure. The occlusal function and aesthetics of the face depends on whether the goals of the treatment phases were successfully achieved. Although orthognathic surgery involves restoring skeletal anatomy, the patient is ultimately concerned with how the soft tissue drapes the new facial skeleton. The surgeon must be wel aware of the soft-tissue response to skeletal movements. The goal is not necessarily to normalise cephalometric values; rather, the aim should be for the patient to have normal appearance and function.

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