Students‘ Essays

Writing an academic essay means creating ideas into an argument. The basic university student essay has following standardized structure:
paragraph 1 – introduction
paragraph 2 – body
paragraph 3 – conclusion


Credit issuing will take place on Tuesday, May 21, 2019 at 2:00 PM and on Thursday, May 30, 2019 at 10:00 AM in the Purkyne´s Institute Large Auditorium (Purkyňův ústav, velká posluchárna), Albertov 4, Prague 2.

To get credits you need to:
1) Reply questions under each lecture video on Youtube (as a comment).
2) Write thesis (essay at least 2 pages A4) and submit it on this webpage. How to upload essay to the system:

Open the website and click on the tab English –> Students‘ Essays.

At the end of the page (at the bottom) there is space for Comment („Napsat komentář“). Upload your seminar work there according to the instructions in the following picture.

1. Enter the text of your work into the „Comment/Komentář“ field.
2. Type your first name and last name into the „Name/Jméno“ field.
3. Send the seminar work by clicking on „Send Comment/Odeslat komentář“.
Leave the other two fields blank.
If the work is okay, your comment will be approved.

84 komentářů u „Students‘ Essays

  1. Olav Hovland Sannes

    Facial wrinkles and their treatment
    Olav Hovland Sannes

    Wrinkles are folds in the skin appearing due to a variety of reasons, becoming especially conspicous in the facial region. Facial wrinkles are typically viewed as a sign of aging. In a sense, the appearance and arrangement of an individuals facial wrinkles acts as a road map of that persons life, revealing many details about them and their habits throughout their lifetime. Naturally, carrying this information in such a visible manner is not for everyone, especially with the social and cultural symbolisms associated with a wrinkly face.
    In this essay, I will explain the main reasons for the development of wrinkles in the facial region and discuss some common methods for their removal and reduction.

    Wrinkles are primarily result of gradual damaging of elastin and collagen fibers in the dermis of the skin. Collagen fibers support she skin and elastin fibers are responsible for its flexibility. These fibers are slowly becoming injured with the continous extension and compression of the skin due to facial expression and mechanical contact. With age, regeneration of skin happens slower and with higher alteration of length and tension of replicated fibers. The accumulation of these altered fibers occur in areas of regular folding. Eventually this results in the normal folding pattern to be more and more permanent, producing a wrinkle.
    Another consequence of againg affecting the skin skin is the decrease in its ability to retain moisture and it’s own naturally produced oils. These components also contribute against the formation of wrinkles.

    While it is not so easy to fight an individual’s aging and it’s effect on the skin, there are other parameters that affect wrinkle formation. The primary cause of premature wrinkle formation is exposure to the sun. When sun light hits the skin, UV radiation damages the collagen fibers and dries away moisture. This damage can be reduced by using sunscreens routinely.
    Another major contributor to wrinkle development is the use of tobbaco. Chemicals in tobacco damage elastin and collagen fibers, which reduces elasticisy and strength of skin. Nicotine in tobbaco based substances also lead to the constriction of vessels. Thus, the blood flow to dermis is reduced, together with the subsequent supply of oxygen and nutrients to the dermis and epidermis.
    Other factors that play into the appearance of wrinkles are nutrition and exercise. Omega 3 fats provide protective components against UV radiation and regular exercise will increase the blood flow to the layers of skin.

    In attempt to reduce and remove current wrinkles or prevent the formation of new ones, there are several treatments that are proven to work. A non-invasive method is the use of certain perscription creams, such as Renova and Retin-A. These creams contain a vitamin A derived carboxyclic acid called tretinonin, but its mode of function is not entirely clear.
    A more invasive method is the injection of the infamous neurotoxin botulinum toxin,more commonly known as Botox. This neurotoxin is injected into the patient’s facial muscles, and causes the inhibition of their motor receptors. This leads to hypokinesia in the injected mimic muscles, restricting their constriction and thus prohibiting the formation of wrinkles.
    Other invasive treatments exists that directly remove wrinkles. Examples of these methods are dermabrasion and chemical peel. Essentially, these treatments use mechanical and chemical means to peel off or wear away the outer layers of epidermis, which have the higest degree of wrinkle formation. The lower layers of skin that are revealed are more smooth.

    In conlcusion, the appearance of wrinkles is largely due to environmental damage over time. With old age, collagen and elastic fibers in the skin do not regenerate as quick or as well as they used to. Thus, the destructive effects on these fibers due to the use of mimic muscles and the exposure to UV radiation become more appearant, producing folds in the skin. This process can be both prolonged or advanced by activities and chemicals that either protect or degenerate collagen and elastic fibers. However, if the the problem has already occured, there are several treatments that can help, both chemical and mechanic, invasive and non-invasive.

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