Students‘ Essays

Writing an academic essay means creating ideas into an argument. The basic university student essay has following standardized structure:
paragraph 1 – introduction
paragraph 2 – body
paragraph 3 – conclusion


Credit issuing will take place on Tuesday, May 21, 2019 at 2:00 PM and on Thursday, May 30, 2019 at 10:00 AM in the Purkyne´s Institute Large Auditorium (Purkyňův ústav, velká posluchárna), Albertov 4, Prague 2.

To get credits you need to:
1) Reply questions under each lecture video on Youtube (as a comment).
2) Write thesis (essay at least 2 pages A4) and submit it on this webpage. How to upload essay to the system:

Open the website and click on the tab English –> Students‘ Essays.

At the end of the page (at the bottom) there is space for Comment („Napsat komentář“). Upload your seminar work there according to the instructions in the following picture.

1. Enter the text of your work into the „Comment/Komentář“ field.
2. Type your first name and last name into the „Name/Jméno“ field.
3. Send the seminar work by clicking on „Send Comment/Odeslat komentář“.
Leave the other two fields blank.
If the work is okay, your comment will be approved.

84 komentářů u „Students‘ Essays

  1. Ayla Shahidi

    Laser Hair Removal
    Laser hair removal is one of today’s most common cosmetic procedures. It involves removing unwanted hair by repeatedly blasting the skin with intense laser pulses that destroy the hair follicles. It’s an effective, long term alternative to other hair removal methods such as electrolysis, shaving, or waxing. The primary principle behind laser hair removal is selective photothermolysis, which involves the matching of a specific wavelength of light and pulse duration to obtain an optimal effect on a targeted area of skin with minimal effect on the surrounding area. Successful hair removal has been defined as an 80% reduction of regrowing hairs 6 months after several treatments.
    Various types of lasers are utilized with laser hair removal depending on your skin type, hair thickness and color, the size and location of the area being treated, and the treatment timing: Ruby laser, Alexandrite laser, Diode laser, Nd:YAG laser or Intense pulsed light devices. Alexandrite and pulsed light devices should not be used on darker skin types or tanned patients. Diode lasers and Nd:YAG lasers may be used for these skin types.
    The mechanism behind laser hair removal works by targeting areas with specific chromophores such as melanin found in the hair. Hair grows in several phases and a laser can only affect the active growing hair follicles thus several sessions are required in order to kill the hair in all growth phases. The laser emits a wavelength of light that is primarily absorbed by the hair and reflected by the skin, causing the hair follicle to heat up faster than the surrounding skin. This causes inflammation, which will kill the follicle that produces the hair. There are two types of melanin in the hair; eumelanin which gives hair a brown or black color and pheomelanin which gives hair blonde or red color. Due to the selective absorption of photons of laser light, only black or brown hair can be removed. This is why laser works best with dark and coarse hair. The ideal combination for effective results are light skin and dark hair. The number of sessions depends on the area of the body being treated, coarseness of hair, skin color, and sex. Most patients need a minimum of seven treatments.
    Laser parameters are crucial to producing optimal results. The pulse duration is one of the most important considerations. The length of the heating pulse directly relates to the amount of damage achieved in the follicle. The main target when attempting to destroy hair follicles are the germ cells that reside on the surface of the hair shaft. An adequate temperature needs to be maintained for a certain duration in order for these cells to be successfully destroyed. The width of the laser beam is also a crucial component as it directly affects the depth of penetration of the light energy due to scattering effects in the dermal layer. Larger beam diameters cause a deeper deposition of energy and thus can induce higher temperatures in deeper follicles. Energy density is also important because because the settings have to be high enough to heat up the follicles enough to disable them from producing hair. Epidermal cooling allows for higher energy density to be used and it reduces pain and other side effects. Types of cooling include contact cooling through a window that’s cooled by circulating water, cryogen spray, and air cooling by forced air at -34 degrees Celsius.
    As with any cosmetological procedure, laser hair removal also has several side effects and risks. Normal side effects include itching, pink skin, redness, and swelling around the treatment area or swelling of the follicles. These side effects rarely last more than two or three days. Pain should be expected during treatments. Numbing creams used before and icing the area after treatment can help relieve the side effects faster. The two most common serious side effects are acne and skin discoloration. Diode handpieces with a large spot size which use vacuum-assisted suction have shown to reduce the level of pain associated with laser treatment. Risks include the possibility of burning the skin or discoloration, hypopigmentation, acne flare, scab formation, purpura, and infection. These risks can be reduced by treatment with an appropriate laser type used at appropriate settings for the individual’s skin type and treatment area.
    Before the procedure the patient should avoid sunbathing, tanning beds, waxing, chemical peels or collagen injections for two weeks prior to the procedure. They should also avoid perfumes, deodorants or any potential irritants in the treatment area before and after treatment. Aspirin, anti-inflammatory drugs and herbal supplements should also be avoided due to increased risk of bleeding.
    Laser hair removal is a convenient, noninvasive method for permanently reducing or removing unwanted facial or body hair compared to other methods such as waxing, plucking, shaving, and electrolysis.

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