Students‘ Essays

Writing an academic essay means creating ideas into an argument. The basic university student essay has following standardized structure:
paragraph 1 – introduction
paragraph 2 – body
paragraph 3 – conclusion


Credit issuing will take place on Tuesday, May 21, 2019 at 2:00 PM and on Thursday, May 30, 2019 at 10:00 AM in the Purkyne´s Institute Large Auditorium (Purkyňův ústav, velká posluchárna), Albertov 4, Prague 2.

To get credits you need to:
1) Reply questions under each lecture video on Youtube (as a comment).
2) Write thesis (essay at least 2 pages A4) and submit it on this webpage. How to upload essay to the system:

Open the website and click on the tab English –> Students‘ Essays.

At the end of the page (at the bottom) there is space for Comment („Napsat komentář“). Upload your seminar work there according to the instructions in the following picture.

1. Enter the text of your work into the „Comment/Komentář“ field.
2. Type your first name and last name into the „Name/Jméno“ field.
3. Send the seminar work by clicking on „Send Comment/Odeslat komentář“.
Leave the other two fields blank.
If the work is okay, your comment will be approved.

84 komentářů u „Students‘ Essays

  1. Mahta Vaez Alavi


    Historical records from ancient civilizations show the importance cosmetic surgery as far as 2000 B.C. Specialist ritualist as the early doctors of their times, made effort in finding ways to perform these surgeries on their patients. In some cultures tattooing, piercing , sharp blade scaring, snipping and stitching were popular methods to improve their looks. Gradually the techniques evolved and modern medicine was born. Following this, reconstructive surgery was introduced. Later anesthesia and antiseptics were discovered. Surgical procedures became safer and more bearable for the patients. The popularity of plastic surgery went up dramatically and cosmetic surgery started improving. During the world wars plastic and cosmetic surgeons experiments with new techniques to improve the looks of people that were wounded and disfigured. The first modern rhinoplasty and face lift was performed in United States and eventually number of medical boards and associations were formed to provide care and research in the field of medical plastic and cosmetic surgery.

    Now a days rhinoplasty or nose reshaping is one of the most popular and in some countries it the most common plastic surgery. The goal of rhinoplasty is to facilitate better breathing and also improve the appearance of the nose since the nose is the central feature of the face and has a great influence in a person’s looks. Sometimes the problem can be more to do with the position of the chin or jaw. The rhinoplasty procedure might include altering the hump at the bridge of the nose, reshaping the tip of the nose, altering the length of the nose and altering the width of the nostrils. Rhinoplasty generally takes about 1.5 to 3 hours. If a patient is getting surgery because of breathing problems the surgery can be performed at a younger age, but if it’s done to improve the appearance the patient, it is advised to wait until nasal bone is fully grown to achieve better results. Nose reshaping operation is performed in two ways. Either inside the nostrils which is referred to as close rhinoplasty or making a small cut on the nose and elevating the skin known as an open rhinoplasty. When the tip of the nose is being operating on, the cartilage that makes the tip support, needs to be partly removed or reshaped this is done through nostrils or by making a small cut in columella in an open rhinoplasty. Adjustment to the tip cartilage also helps adjust nasal length. A surgeon can adjust and reduce the septum to help shrink the tip and reduce the overall length of the nose. By breaking and repositioning the side nasal bone surgeon can also reduce the width of the nose to achieve a narrower appearance. In additional rhinoplasty surgeons can add to nose using cartilage grafts from septum or silicone implants. This type of operation is used to build up a flat bridge or tip. After rhinoplasty most patients will experience some pain, bruising under the eyes and discomfort that can be controlled with medication. Wearing a splint inside and outside the nose to protect the nasal bones and cartilage is advised for two weeks. Patients should avoid activities such as swimming and jogging for few weeks. All surgeries carry some risks, including bleeding, infections and reactions to anesthesia. Rhinoplasty may increase the risk of difficulty in breathing, nose bleeding, numb nose, scars and asymmetrical nose. Sometimes patients are not happy with the result of their surgery and want a revision surgery but they must wait until the nose is fully healed before revision surgery which normally takes a year.

    While surgical techniques are advanced there are limitations to how much the surgery can alter the problem. Outcome depends on condition of the skin, age of the patient and communication between a patient and surgeon about what is wanted and what is achievable and patients should bear in mind that surgery alone will not solve any emotional or social problems they may attribute to their appearance.

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